EXAMINING THE BOOK OF ABRAHAM                   Translated-Correctly.com

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Sheshonq’s Hypocephalus

Sheshonq’s Hypocephalus

This image depicts the mummy of a person named Sheshonq being laid to rest with a hypocephalus–a disk covered with prayers, incantations, and visual representations of various Egyptian gods, placed behind the head of the deceased to give warmth and divine power to his or her body in the afterlife. For a member of the LDS Church, the hypocephalus in this image probably looks very familiar, because it is based on “Facsimile No. 2” from The Book of Abraham, found in the LDS scripture called The Pearl of Great Price. The Book of Abraham Facsimiles came from Egyptian papyri that were sold (along with four mummies) to members of the LDS Church in 1835. Joseph Smith declared that many of the papyrus documents, including Facsimile No. 2, were authored by Abraham himself. The Church believed that the papyri were preserved through the millennia to be translated by Joseph Smith for the benefit of the restored Church and the world.

The story of the papyri on which The Book of Abraham and Facsimiles are based is a complicated one, and there are many places on the internet (some of which are listed below) where the story is told, from various points of view. The purpose of this image is not to tell that story, rather, its point is very limited–to illustrate a few facts about the history of Facsimile No. 2 that are quite interesting, but are not well known:

  1. Facsimile No. 2 is based on a hypocephalus belonging to the mummy of a person named Sheshonq.
  2. The original papyrus hypocephalus has been lost for more than 150 years, but the earliest known facsimile of the artifact indicates that a significant portion of the hypocephalus had been destroyed by the time the Church came to own it.
  3. The red and blue elements of the image above indicate the missing portions of the hypocephalus that were restored by Joseph Smith (and/or his scribes) to produce Facsimile No. 2. Although some of the missing portions of the hypocephalus that were filled in (the blue elements) may have been attempts to depict what was originally there, the most prominent elements that were filled in (the red elements) were directly copied from other completely unrelated fragments of papyrus on hand, or (in the case of the central figure) copied from other elements of the hypocephalus itself. See below for a more detailed explanation and analysis of this issue.

Why was Sheshonq’s hypocephalus restored in this fashion by Joseph Smith?

People who are skeptical of the claim that Joseph Smith was acting as a prophet of God in preparing Facsimile No. 2 view the blue elements of this image as irresponsible bluffing, and the red elements as cynical lies. A faithful Mormon egyptologist, Michael D. Rhodes, has suggested that the red elements that are comprised of written characters, found on the edge and right-hand block of Facsimile No. 2, were copied there “for aesthetic purposes.”


Translation of Egyptian Symbols — Facsimile #2

Figure a
Historically we've been led to believe that Facsimile #2 came from Abraham's handwritten papyrus.  Note the small numbered segments on Jos. Smith's "reconstruction" of the image (shown above).

If you will remember, Joseph received four mummies. From these four mummies, he received five different texts.1 The three which are applicable to our current study are:

  1. The Breathing Permit of Hôr, of which we have had considerable discussion.
  2. A Book of the Dead document belonging to the lady Tshenmîn, whose mother was Skhons. The handwriting dates it to the second half of the Ptolemaic Period, perhaps around 100 B.C.E. This is the papyrus that Joseph Smith believed to contain the Book of Joseph.
  3. A Book of the Dead document belonging to a person named Sheshonk.

The latter document (3) was a "hypocephalus" shown above, called such because it was placed under the head of the deceased (literally hypo - under, cephalus - head) in order to magically keep the head warm and preserved.2

Facsimile #2 is this hypocephalus for Sheshonk. Joseph Smith, simply took Sheshonk's hypocephalus, combined it with the two vignettes from Hôr's Breathing Permit, and included the documents in his Book of Abraham.

Translating and interpreting the hypocephalus is a little harder than Hôr's vignettes, due to a combination of poor copying by Reuben Hedlock, and incorrect restorations from damaged areas in the original document.

An early rendering — perhaps the first — of this hypocephalus is included below. Note the clear indication of a swath of missing papyrus extending from the center to the northeast section of the drawing, Fig. a'.

Figure a'

Jean Champollion


In 1822 Jean François Champollion using the ROSETTA STONE,   made the decisive discovery concerning the decipherment of the hieroglyphs and became the founder of   Egyptology ...

... At the same time, Joseph Smith, using a SEER STONE founded



Joseph Smith

The vignettes in the damaged sections were probably "restored" in the same manner that Anubis was "restored" in Hôr's first vignette. And, the writing around the edge and in the square section just to the right of the middle (pictured below), was "restored" by copying symbols from Hôr's Breathing Permit and placing them into the "restoration". We know they are symbols from Hôr's Breathing Permit because they are hieratic as opposed to hieroglyphic (which composes the rest of the writing on this hypocephalus), and we can tell which lines in the Joseph Smith Papyri the hieratic writing came from.

A Note About Hypocephali in general

Before we delve into the interpretation and translation of the hypocephalus known as Facsimile 2, let's take a moment to familiarize ourselves with hypocephali in general.

While Joseph Smith apparently thought of this hypocephalus as a study of cosmic concepts, Egyptians would have thought of it as a funerary document which contained imagery and text culled from their long-standing religious beliefs, which would aid the deceased along their journey toward the afterlife. Even the shape of the hypocephalus was significant in this context.

To the ancient Egyptians, the circle symbolized the Eternity, and they used it in the glyph called "shen" (pictured to the right), which looks like a circle made of a rope. Often the sun disk is depicted in the center of it. The word "shen" comes from the word "shenu", which means to encircle. In its elongated form, the "shen" becomes a cartouche which surrounds the king's name. Another way of writing eternity was two twisted ropes on each side of the sign of Ra, which also was a circle, but with one dot in the center. In the context of the hypocephalus, the shape of a circle would undoubtedly represent the eternities.

Egyptian Scribe.    Louvre, Paris.

The writing and vignettes inside the circle which make up the hypocephalus is about transformation. Transformation is the key word in the Egyptian concept of our journey into the afterlife. The deceased transforms into a spiritual being, or is re-born as one. To symbolize this, the ancient Egyptians used the most apparent phenomenon of nature they knew — the sun and its daily rebirth. Fertility imagery is also used, often paralleled with animals such as bulls, rams, etc.

As for the specific content inside our hypocephalus, commonly known as Facsimile 2, here is a short summary (we'll greatly expand on this in the next section): We start with the writing at the very bottom, which asks that the deceased's tomb not be desecrated and that his/her soul may also not be desecrated in the Netherworld. Next, we proceed to the figures at the bottom (drawn upside down) which represent the deceased's re-birth, or transformation, into the afterlife and divine realm. Again, symbolizing the process of re-birth/transformation is the fertility god Min, followed by the goddess Hathor who is there to greet the deceased.

We then proceed to the middle level, in which the condition of the afterlife is depicted, along with an invocation requesting that the deceased may be granted eternal life (see the text to the left of the vignette). Finally, we end at the top level which symbolizes the deceased gaining eternal life.

In addition to the drawings, we have writing which was from the Book of the Dead (chapter 162)3, and which was customized to each deceased person with whom it was buried (in this case, a person named Sheshonk). In Facsimile 2, the writing was originally hieroglyphic (the earlier form of ancient Egyptian writing), but many of the missing sections was filled in with hieratic symbols (which was a later form of Egyptian writing).

Hypocephali first appeared around 663-525 B.C.E.4, which is, of course, much too late for Abraham, who would have lived somewhere between 2200 B.C.E. and 1500 B.C.E. at the very latest.

Facsimile 2 — Number by Number

One of the problems with discussing Facsimile 2 is that we don't have the original. We have an inaccurately "restored" drawing of the original. Therefore, in an effort to help us visualize what the original figures would probably have actually looked like, let's introduce a very similar hypocephalus from the British Museum:


Figure b

Sheshonq’s Hypocephalus     Click to Enlarge

As we move through the small numbered segments on Jos. Smith's, Facsimile #2 (Figure a) we'll compare its figures with those of Sheshonq’s Hypocephalus shown above.

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Figure 1

Jos. Smith's Rendering - See Figure a Actual hypocephalus - see Figure b

Joseph Smith said that Figure 1 was: "Kolob, signifying the first creation, nearest to the celestial, or the residence of God. First in government, the last pertaining to the measurement of time. The measurement according to celestial time, which celestial time signifies one day to a cubit. One day in Kolob is equal to a thousand years according to the measurement of this earth, which is called by the Egyptians Jah-oh-eh."    Link -   Mormon Liturgy:  ♫ If You Could Hie to Kolob

Notice the differences between Figure 1 in Facsimile 2 on the left and the same figure in the British Museum hypocephalus on the right. Also, remember that this figure was one of the casualties of the damaged section in the original hypocephalus (see the picture of  Figure b above on this page).

There has been a little controversy in the past among some Church defenders and Egyptologists as to whether this figure should have four ram-heads, or whether it's possible for it to have only two. While two ram-heads aren't unheard of, in this context the figure should properly have four heads as depicted in the figure on the right.

Regarding figure 1, Dr. Samuel A. B. Mercer, Ph.D. said, "It represents the four-headed ram-god, a form of Khnumu in whom, as Weigall in Petrie, Abydos I says, the spirits of the four elements were said to be united.5

Khnumu, also spelled Khnum and Khnemu, is one of the oldest gods of ancient Egypt. He is considered a creator god, and was said to have created humans out of clay on a potter's wheel.6 When depicted with four heads, Khnumu was said to have united within himself the attributes of four other gods: Ra, Shu, Gebb, and Osiris — in other words, the first four generations of creation.7

The baboons (figures 22 and 23) are adoring souls of that realm.8 In the British Museum hypocephalus, however, there is a double symbolism as well. The word ba which is loosely translated as "soul", is written with the picture of a leg, and the stars were considered to be the souls of the deceased. As we can see, both are pictured in the hypocephalus on the right. It would be interesting to see the original of Facsimile 2. There seem to be hints of a couple pictures of legs, representing the word ba.

Figure 2

Joseph Smith said this figure: "Stands next to Kolob, called by the Egyptians Oliblish, which is the next grand governing creation near to the celestial or the place where God resides; holding the key of power also, pertaining to other planets; as revealed from God to Abraham, as he offered sacrifice upon an alter, which he had built unto the Lord."

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Dr. Mercer said that Figure 2, "Represents a god with two faces — the double aspect of the sun in setting and rising."9 This figure wears the headdress of Amun, and is identified as Amun-Re by BYU scholar Michael D. Rhodes.10 The depiction of the sun setting and rising was very important to the Egyptians in this context as it symbolized rebirth/transformation into the spiritual realm after death takes place. Remember, also, that this figure was part of the top level of the hypocephalus, in which the deceased had achieved his/her goal of eternal life.

By the way, "Oliblish" is not a known Egyptian word.

Figure 3

Figure 3 is actually in the damaged section of the original hypocephalus. As you can see from the three images above, the same section of the British Museum hyocephalus (far right and Figure b, above) is very different than the one in Facsimile 2 (far left), but notice the similarity between the picture in the middle with Figure 3 on the left. Interestingly, the picture in the middle is a segment of the papyrus identified as the proposed "Book of Joseph".

Perhaps there was enough of the original hypocephalus for Joseph to make out the ends of a bark (boat) — notice that the British Museum hypocephalus on the right has a bark in the same exact place. Perhaps Joseph deduced that there was supposed to be a figure in a bark in the damaged section, and, wishing to be as authentic as he could and noticing that there was another figure in a similarly shaped bark in the Book of Joseph papyrus, he had Rueben Hedlock copy the Book of Joseph figure onto the hypocephalus where the damage was.

See Oloblish on Wikipedia

Of course, this is all conjecture. Who knows why he used the figure he did in his "restoration". For whatever reason it's there, here is what Joseph said it was: "Is made to represent God, sitting upon his throne, clothed with power and authority; with a crown of eternal light upon his head; representing also the grand Key-words of the Holy Priesthood, as revealed to Adam in the Garden of Eden, as also to Seth, Noah, Melchizedek, Abraham, and all to whom the Priesthood was revealed."

Dr. Samuel Mercer identified the figure as: "Horus-Re sitting in his boat with the user, the royal sceptre which gave dominion over heaven and earth, in his hand. There is with him two uzat-eyes. These were used as amulets for protection against the evil eye. He is crowned with the sun's disk and ruaeus. An offering table stands before him."11

It would be interesting to go back in time and see if Joseph Smith's hypocephalus originally had the same figures as this British Museum's hypocephalus or not.11a They are alike in so many other ways. So, even though it's secondary to our discussion on Facsimile 2, here is the interpretation of the two figures on the far right picture above.

The deity in the upper corner is the Bennu, who sometimes was pictured as the bird and other times as a man with a Bennu's head. The Bennu is a symbol of being united with Ra, since it is "the soul of Ra". And, the Khepri (below the Bennu) ends the story of the transformation of the deceased told within the hypocephalus by depicting the deceased as the rising sun, in other words, the deceased is reborn and symbolised as being one with the rising sun.

Figure 4

Joseph Smith said this figure: "Answers to the Hebrew word Raukeeyang, signifying expanse, or the firmament of the heavens; also a numerical figure, in Egyptian signifying one thousand; answering to the measuring of the time of Oliblish, which is equal with Kolob in its revolution and in its measuring of time."

This figure doesn't seem to be very common, but is interesting. Dr. Mercer said that it represents Sokar,12 probably based on the fact that this is a Hawk, and Sokar is often represented as a hawk. But this figure has some interesting features that's not common.

The outstretched wings indicates the realm of the spirit or afterlife, and since the lower-half of the figure is mummified, it seems as though this represents the deceased — in other words, the union of the deceased with the spiritual realm; the birth of the Horus in the afterworld.

Figure 5

Joseph said that this figure: "Is called in Egyptian Enish-go-on-dosh; this is one of the governing planets also, and is said by the Egyptians to be the Sun, and to borrow its light from Kolob through the medium of Kae-e-vanrash, which is the grand Key, or, in other words, the governing power, which governs fifteen other fixed planets or stars, as also Floeese or the Moon, the Earth and the Sun in their annual revolutions. This planet receives its power through the medium of Kli-flos-is-es, or Hah-ko-kau-beam, the stars represented by numbers 22 and 23, receiving light from the revolutions of Kolob."

Dr. Mercer said figure 5, "represents the cow of Hathor, behind which stands a uzat-headed goddess holding a sacred tree." He also noted that there is no such Egyptian word as "Enish-go-on-dosh".13 Kae-e-vanrash, Floeese, Hah-ko-kau-beam and Kli-flos-is-es are Hebrew transliterations that were undoubtedly the result of Joseph's study of Hebrew from Prof. Seixas.

In the funerary context, Hathor is welcoming the deceased.

Figure 6

Joseph said this figure: "Represents this earth in its four quarters."

These are the very well known entities of the four Sons of Horus. Defenders of Joseph Smith's interpretations are fond of calling this a "direct hit" for Joseph, in that the Sons of Horus are associated with the four cardinal points of the earth, North (Hapy), South (Imsety), East (Duamutef), and West (Qebehsenuef). However, calling this a "direct hit" is a stretch, in my opinion. The four Sons of Horus are associated with the cardinal points in only one aspect, and never in a funerary context such as this one.13a

In a funerary context, the Sons of Horus were seen as protectors of the deceased's internal organs. Imsety protected the liver, Hapy protected the lungs, Duamutef protected the stomach, and Qebehsenuef protected the intestines.

Figure 7

More to explore - Hypocephalus of Irethorrou
Late 30th Dynasty or Ptolemaic Period, 3rd-1st century BC
© Musée du Louvre/C. Décamps

Jos. Smith said that figure 7, "Represents God sitting upon his throne, revealing through the heavens the grand Key-words of the Priesthood; as also, the sign of the Holy Ghost unto Abraham, in the form of a dove."

This figure is clearly the ithyphallic god Min. Next to Min, shown more clearly (in the British Museum hypocephalus on the right  above - also seen in Hypocephalus of Irethorrou, right, for example), is the ithyphallic snake which represents Atum, whose power of creation was often represented in the form of a snake. The ithlyphallic pose underlines this creative aspect. I suspect that the unfinished representation of Atum in Facsimile 2 (due probably to damage in the original) was interpreted by Joseph to be a figure "in the form of a dove", rather than that of a snake.

Overall, this entire lower register describes the deceased's entry into the divine realm of the afterlife and the beginning of his/her transformation — his/her re-birth to that realm, as represented by these ithyphallic figures.

Figure 8-11

Joseph gave the following translations of this writing:

  • Fig. 8, "Contains writings that cannot be revealed unto the world; but is to be had in the Holy Temple of God";
  • Fig. 9, "Ought not to be revealed at the present time";
  • Fig. 10, "Also";
  • Fig. 11, "Also. If the world can find out these numbers, so let it be. Amen."

Joseph Smith seems to have numbered these backwards. The writing is actually read from top to bottom, or, in other words, from Figure 11 down to Figure 8. According to Michael D. Rhodes, BYU, figures 11-8 actually read:14

  • Fig. 11, "O god of the sleeping ones from the time of creation"
  • Fig. 10, "O mighty god, lord of heaven and earth"
  • Fig. 9, "the netherworld (below the earth) and his great waters"
  • Fig. 8, "grant that the soul of Osiris Sheshonk may live."

Figures 12-21

Joseph didn't offer any other translation, other than to write the following: "Figures 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, and 21 will be given in the own due time of the Lord."

Apparently that time has now come, as we can translate these figures today.

Figures 12-15 were apparently damaged in the original, and were "restored" by pasting in hieratic symbols for Hôr's Breathing Permit — upside-down. A trace of the original hieroglyphic writing can be made out, but only the phrase "his words" can be made out at the end of the line in Fig. 15. The remainder of these lines are filled with hieratic writing taken from lines 4 and 5 of Hôr's Breathing Permit15:

  • Figure 12: (upside down) "near" and "wrap"
  • Figure 13: (upside down) "which made by"
  • Figure 14: (upside down) "breathings"
  • Figure 15: (upside down) "this book"

Figures 16 and 17 should actually be read in the following order:

  • Figure 17: "May this tomb never be desecrated"
  • Figure 16: "and may this soul and its possessor never be desecrated in the netherworld."16

Three-fourths of the original hieroglyphic inscription appears to have survived, and counterclockwise reads:17

  • Figure 18: "I am Djabty in the house of Benben in Heliopolis, so exalted and glorious. [I am] copulating bull without equal. [I am] that mighty god in the house of Benben in Heliopolis...that mighty god..."

  • Figure 19, 20, 21: "You shall be as that god, the Busirian."18

  • Figure 22 writing: "The name of this mighty god"19

Nineteen Footnotes -
Containing references to the work of Asst. BYU Professor Michael David Rhodes, Samuel A. B. Mercer, Ph.D,  Joann Fletcher, Richard A. Parker,PhD.

Rhodes' The Conclusion:

"Many of the [Jos. Smith's] explanations of the hypocephalus illustrated in Facsimile 2 are supported by our present understanding of ancient Egyptian religion, and are in fact especially typical of Late Egyptian religious writings. One or two could conceivably be dismissed as mere chance or lucky guessing, but the many correct interp[r]etations taken together are impossible to ignore. It is clear that Joseph Smith knew what he was talking about.

This only reaffirms what every honest person can learn in earnest prayer, that Jos. Smith received these things from God, even as he claimed.

Prof Rhodes home page here.      CQ: K3VM

Michael David Rhodes
Associate Research Professor
Department of Ancient Scripture,
Assistant Professor of Physics &
Director of Campus Observatory
Brigham Young University
(801) 422-2445

Courses by Brother Rhodes, Egyptologist -
Relig 212: New Testament (Acts - Revelation)
Relig 121: Book of Mormon, 1 Nephi 1 - Alma 29
Relig 122: Book of Mormon, Alma 30-Moroni 10
Relig 211: New Testament
Relig 327: Pearl of Great Price
Stake Adult Relig Class
Updated: May 28, 2011 by Michael Rhodes

1. The other two fragments were (1) The Book of the Dead belonging to the female musician Amon-Re Neferirnûb; and (2) Book of the Dead belonging to Amenhotep.

See H. Michael Marquardt, The Book of Abraham Papyrus Found, 2nd edition 1981, publ. by Utah Lighthouse Ministry, p. 23, 24; and Klaus Baer, "The Breathing Permit of Hor", Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought, Autumn 1968, p. 111 - Back to article

2. See this short description of hypocephali by the British Museum - Back
3. Michael D. Rhodes, "The Joseph Smith Hypocephalus, Seventeen Year Later". Online version of this essay. - Back
4. Michael D. Rhodes, "The Joseph Smith Hypocephalus, Seventeen Year Later". Online version of this essay. - Back
5. Samuel A. B. Mercer, Ph.D., "Joseph Smith as an Interpreter and Translator of Egyptian", from The Utah Survey, Vol. 1, No. 1, Sep. 1913, p. 23 -Back
6. Joann Fletcher, The Egyptian Book of Living and Dying, p. 21 - Back
7. Michael D. Rhodes, "The Joseph Smith Hypocephalus, Seventeen Year Later". Online version of this essay. See also this short description of Khnemu - Back
8. Michael D. Rhodes, "The Joseph Smith Hypocephalus, Seventeen Year Later". Online version of this essay. - Back
9. Samuel A. B. Mercer, Ph.D., "Joseph Smith as an Interpreter and Translator of Egyptian", from The Utah Survey, Vol. 1, No. 1, Sep. 1913, p. 23 - Back
10. Michael D. Rhodes, "The Joseph Smith Hypocephalus, Seventeen Year Later". Online version of this essay. - Back

11. Samuel A. B. Mercer, Ph.D., "Jos. Smith as an Interpreter and Translator of Egyptian", from The Utah Survey, Vol. 1, No. 1, Sep. 1913, p. 23 - Back
11a. I should point out an interesting parallel, however. In another similar hypocephalus found at the British Museum — a hypocephalus for the temple musician Neshorpakhered — this same northeast corner is very similar to Joseph Smith's "restoration". Whether you call it "luck" or "inspiration", it certainly is similar, and I have no problem giving Joseph credit for anything he got correct:  -
12. Samuel A. B. Mercer, Ph.D., "Joseph Smith as an Interpreter and Translator of Egyptian", from The Utah Survey, Vol. 1, No. 1, September 1913, p. 23 - Back
13. Samuel A. B. Mercer, Ph.D., "Joseph Smith as an Interpreter and Translator of Egyptian", from The Utah Survey, Vol. 1, No. 1, September 1913, p. 24 - Back

13a. LDS Egyptologist Stephen E. Thompson had this to say: "...it has been repeatedly claimed that Figure 6 in Facsimile 2, which is a depiction of the four sons of Horus (also found as Figures 5-8 in Facsimile 1) 'could indeed 'represent this earth in its four quarters' in the ancient world, as the explanation to the facsimile in the Book of Abraham says.' As far as ancient Egypt was concerned, there is no evidence currently available to support this claim. There is only one context in which the sons of Horus are associated with the cardinal directions, i.e., the 'earth in its four quarters.' They were sent out, in the form of birds, as heralds of the king's coronation. In this setting, Duamutef (Facs. 1, Fig. 6) went to the East, Qebehsenuef (Facs. 1, Fig. 5) to the West, Amset (Facs. 1, Fig. 8) to the South, and Hapi (Facs. 1, Fig. 7) to the North. I must emphasize that it is only in this context, and in the form of birds, that these gods were associated with the cardinal points. In a funerary context no such relationship is evident. Furthermore, the fact that these gods were sent to the four quarters of the earth does not mean that the Egyptians equated them with these directions. There is no evidence that they did so." — Stephen E. Thompson, "Egyptology and the Book of Abraham", Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought, Spring 1995, p. 152 - Back

14. Michael D. Rhodes, Brigham Young University Studies, Spring 1977, p. 265 - Back
15. Richard A. Parker, prof. Egyptology, Brown University, Dialog: A Journal of Mormon Thought, Summer 1968, p. 68 - Back
16. Michael D. Rhodes, Brigham Young University Studies, Spring 1977, p. 265 - Back
17. Michael D. Rhodes, Brigham Young University Studies, Spring 1977, p. 265 - Back
18. Michael D. Rhodes, Brigham Young University Studies, Spring 1977, p. 265 - Back
19. Michael D. Rhodes, Brigham Young University Studies, Spring 1977, p. 265 -

Source: ImagesOfTheRestoration.org  &  BookOfAbraham.com  by Kevin Mathie More from this author.

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